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铜佛像分为哪些种类

作者:西关铜艺     来源:www.xiguantongyi.com     访问人数:      
摘要:铜佛像是以铜为底基,通过锻造或者铸造加工,得到一尊完整的佛像。所以铜佛像的制作工艺主要分为两种,一种是锻造,一种是铸造。The bronze Buddha statue is based on cop...

铜佛像是以铜为底基,通过锻造或者铸造加工,得到一尊完整的佛像。所以铜佛像的制作工艺主要分为两种,一种是锻造,一种是铸造。


The bronze Buddha statue is based on copper, which is forged or cast to produce a complete Buddha statue. Therefore, the production process of copper Buddha is divided into two kinds, one is forging and one is cast.


密宗铜佛像文殊菩萨


锻造铜佛像


Forged bronze Buddha


铜佛像锻造是手艺活,光是雕凿用的工具錾子就有100多种,没有十几年的时间很难学成。


锻造铜佛像,先要用泥塑做好样品,再用铜做好模型,经过敲打、焊接、雕刻等工序,最后抛光、镀金,成品才能完成。小型的佛像一般要花2个多月的时间才能做好。精致的小型佛像,一年只能出五六件。慢工才能出细活。


一开始利用模具成型到敲打出规范形状,再到精雕细刻那些细致的花纹,直到最后的火烤定型。有些不用模具的器具,要完全靠手工打制,难度更大了,制作时间也会相应增加。


锻铜是一种区别于铸铜的工艺,是在铜板上进行创作,利用铜板加热后质地变软,锤打后又恢复坚硬的特性,重复这一过程,所制作出的艺术成品。


部件之间经过拼装和焊接,终于一步步具有佛像的完整形象,这样的一件铜器,和机器制作出的完全不同,机器制成的铜器圆润均匀,但缺少光泽。手工锻打的铜器展现出众多锻打的擦痕,如钻石一般有众多抛光面,熠熠闪光。


The bronze Buddha statue is a handicraft work. There are more than 100 kinds of tools for engraving and chisel, and it is hard to learn it in ten years.


Forging copper Buddha statue, first to use clay to make a sample, then use copper to do the model, after knocking, welding, carving and other processes, finally polishing, gilding, finished products. Small statues typically take more than two months to do well. The exquisite miniature Buddha statue, can only produce five or six pieces in a year. Slow work can lead to small work.


At first, use the mould to shape the shape of the hammer, and then to carve the fine pattern, until the final heat is baked. Some of the tools that do not use the mold, must be made by hand completely, the difficulty is bigger, the production time also will increase accordingly.


Wrought brass is a kind of difference in the process of copper casting, is conducted on copper plate, using copper after heating quality of a material soft, hammering again after hard characteristics, repeat this process, the finished product produced by art.


Between parts after assembling and welding, step by step, finally has a complete image of Buddha, such a bronze, and machine to produce completely different, the machine is made of bronze and uniform, but lack of luster. The bronze ware of manual forging shows a lot of scratches, such as diamonds, which have a lot of polished surfaces.


贴金箔


gilding


佛像贴金箔不仅让佛像提升档次,还可以保证佛像存放时间,因为金箔可以存放几百年,这里有一点需要指出的是佛像贴金箔罩面漆的选择,因为佛像是容易手接触到的,所以贴完金箔后一定要使用硬度高耐磨损的油性面漆罩面,一般都使用聚酯漆。贴金箔佛像一般也会结合彩绘同时使用。


Buddha gilding let Buddha ascend the grade not only, still can guarantee the storage time of figure of Buddha, because the gold foil can hold hundreds of years, it should be pointed out here is that the figure of Buddha gilding finish choice, because the Buddha is easy to hand touch, so after stick the foil must use high hardness, wear resistance of oily paint finish, usually use polyester paint. The gold leaf Buddha is also used in combination with color painting.




彩绘


painting


佛像彩绘是一种传统的雕塑工艺,即雕塑与绘画相结为一体,以独特的艺术风格,生动地展现出佛像的神韵及特征。


彩绘就是俗称的丹青,不仅美观,而且有一定的防水性,增加铜佛像供奉周期。


The figure of Buddha is a kind of traditional sculpture craft, that is, sculpture and painting together, with unique artistic style, vividly show the charm and characteristics of the Buddha.


Painting is commonly known as danqing, not only beautiful, but also has certain water repellency, increase the copper Buddha worship period.



镀金


Gold plated


镀金是指电镀金工艺,镀金的前提必须要有电,英国人在19世纪早期发明电镀金,传入中国的时间不早于1848年,广泛应用于器皿制作更晚一些。


Gold-plated refers to the electric plating process, gold-plated must have electricity, the premise of the British in the early 19th century invention of electric plating, time is not earlier than in China in 1848, is widely used in ware production more later.




鎏金


gold


鎏金过程复杂,而且非常容易对人身造成伤害。简单概括来讲是用加热的方法将金和汞分离,从而使金残留在器物表面的一种古老工艺。


本次拍卖会,湖南省文物总店特地调出库存珍品,并从民间征集到一批珍贵文物。参与预展的文物共453件,其中瓷器102件、玉器146件、杂项133件、书画72件。


The gilding process is complicated and can be very personal. A simple generalization is to use a heating method to separate the gold and mercury, thereby leaving the gold residue on an ancient process on the surface of the utensil.


In this auction, the hunan provincial cultural relics general store specially made the inventory of the treasure, and collected a collection of precious cultural relics from the people. There were 453 pieces of cultural relics, including 102 pieces of porcelain, 146 pieces of jade, 133 miscellaneous items and 72 paintings.


当天的拍卖会,从下午1时开始,持续4个多小时。由于瓷器以官窑为主,为各个时期的典型代表器物,字画主要出自曾国藩、何绍基等湖湘人物之手,均较受欢迎,分别成交62件、52件,成交率分别达60.78%和72.22%。


瓷器中,清乾隆仿官贯耳瓶以62万元落槌,是当场拍卖瓷器中价格最高的一件。高潮出现在杂项拍卖中,一件明铜鎏金释迦牟尼佛像,在数位藏家多次踊跃加价后,以290万元落槌,成为此次拍卖“拍王”。


The auction, which started at 1 p.m., lasted more than four hours. Because of the porcelain kiln is given priority to, as the typical representative of various periods, calligraphy and painting mainly by zeng guofan, He Shaoji hunan people, are more popular, clinch a deal, respectively, 62, 52, sell-through rate of 60.78% and 60.78% respectively.


In porcelain, qing qianlong's imitation of the bottle with a gavel of 620,000 yuan, was the highest price in the auction China. The climax came at a miscellaneous auction, the Buddha statue of sakyamuni, a gold gilt gold, which was sold at a price of 2.9 million yuan after a number of collectors made it to be the king of the auction.


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